Filipino American History Timeline
Compiled on 1/7/99 by Thelma Buchholdt for teachers and students of Asian American History in Alaska, with acknowledgment to the work of Eloisa Borah, Chronology of Filipinos in America Pre-1898.
I. EARLY FILIPINO HISTORY IN AMERICA
Note: During the early years of world exploration and trade, Filipino seamen were identified as "Manila Men, " "Manilla Men, " or "Luzones Indios."
The Spanish galleon, Nuestra Senora de Buena Esperanza, captained by Pedro de Unamuno, anchored off the coast of present day Morro Bay, California, on Sunday, October 18, 1587. Filipinos (Luzones Indios) were among the crewmembers. Several Filipinos were sent to scout the shore. On October 20, during a skirmish with local Indians, one Filipino was killed. The galleon departed on October 22. -From Capt. Unanumo's handwritten journal, chronicled by Henry R. Wagner in "Spanish Voyages to the Northwest Coast of America in the Sixteenth Century, " published in 1929 by the California Historical Society in San Francisco.
Filipino seamen were on board the Spanish ship, San Agustin, under the command of Sebastian Rodriguez Cermeno, when it was shipwrecked near Point Reyes by the mouth of San Francisco Bay, California, on November 6, 1595. -Published in the San Francisco Chronicle, November 14, 1995, page A13, based on Carl Nolte's work, 400th Anniversary of Spanish Shipwreck, Rough First Landing in Bay Area.
"Manila Men" established St. Malo, a village on the bayous outside of New Orleans, Louisiana, described by American writer, Lafcadio Hearn, in Harper's Weekly magazine, March 31, 1883.
Father Junipero Serra at Mission Monterey, California, conferred the Sacrament of Confirmation upon Vicente Tallado, a Filipino from Pampanga, Philippines, on August 10, 1779. -From the Thomas Workman Temple II Collection.
Antonio Miranda Rodriguez, 50-year old, born in Sonora, Mexico, a descendant of a "Manila Man, " and his daughter, Juana Maria, age 11, were among the founding settlers of the city of Los Angeles, California. He later became the ironsmith of the Santa Barbara Mission in California where he lived until his death. He is buried in the Santa Barbara Mission church. -Researched by William Mason, curator, History Division, Los Angeles County Museum.
"Manila Men" were the majority of miners at Tulitos, one of the earliest gold mining camps in Mariposa county during the California Gold Rush. -From Stockton Daily Evening Record, December 15, 1934, page 20; based on Vanished Camp of Tulitos Is Forgotten by Historians, Mother Lodelets by Matthew Hamilton.
II. FILIPINOS IN ALASKA TIMELINE
based on Filipinos in Alaska: 1788 - 1958 by Thelma Buchholdt
An Asian Alaskan Cultural Center History in Alaska Documentation Project, 1996
February 22, the Iphigenia Nubiana left Zamboanga, (a city in southwest Mindanao, an island in the southern part of the Philippines). This ship arrived at Cook Inlet on June 17, 1788 with a "Manilla man" on the crew, mentioned in Captain William Douglas' journal.
June 5, the Eleanora (captained by Simon Metcalfe) with 24 "Manilla men" and the Fair American (captained by Thomas Metcalfe) with 5 "Manilla men" sailed from China for the Pacific Northwest coast of America.
From October to November, the ship Gustavus III was in Alaska with a Filipino cabin steward, John Mando.
June, the Gustavus III sailed to Sitka Harbor, again, with John Mando as cabin steward.
June 27, Spanish expedition ships, the Descubierta (captained by Alejandro Malaspina) and the Atrevida (captained by Jose Bustamante y Guerra), arrived at Yakutat Bay, Alaska, then known as Port Mulgrave. Initially, four Filipinos were among the crew departing from Cadiz, Spain. More Filipinos were conscripted in Acapulco to replace deserting crewmembers. Filipinos were in Acapulco as a result of the Manila-Acapulco Spanish galleon trade.
Grigorii Ivanovich Shelikhov, a Russian, organized his fur trading company in Alaska and recommended to the Governor General of Irkutsk, who had jurisdiction of Russian America (Alaska), to trade with the Philippines. Attempts were made to pursue trade relations, but all proved unsuccessful.